By Scott Farris
Because the 2012 presidential crusade starts: Profiles of twelve males who've run for the presidency and misplaced, yet who, even in defeat, have had a better effect on American heritage than a lot of those that have served as president—from Henry Clay to Stephen Douglas, William Jennings Bryan to Al Gore—Plus, mini-profiles on 22 "honorable mentions."
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Additional info for Almost President: The Men Who Lost the Race but Changed the Nation
In the STV system, parties have indirect (in other words, preliminary) control over the composition of parliament: female and male candidates must obtain endorsement from the party for which they are campaigning, but votes for endorsed candidates are preferential votes entrusted by the electorate to the individual. These votes, and not the ranking established by the parties, will therefore determine who will hold a seat in parliament. 12 As for plurality/majority representation, the American system of primaries does not confer any power on the parties to select candidates for Congress, while the Australian and British13 parties firmly hold the reins of the candidate selection process.
The ballot count initially considers each candidate’s first-preference votes, and those who reach the quota are elected. ) of ballots that gave higher preference to candidates already elected; and, finally, the next preferences of ballots that gave higher preference to any candidate eliminated because she or he received the lowest number of votes in a given round5 (for an excellent description of the STV calculation process, see Farrell 2001: 121–152; Gallagher and Mitchell 2005b: 593–596). This procedure continues until all the seats are assigned.
In other words, the elector marks “1” on the ballot next to her or his favourite candidate, then, if required to do so, a “2” next to her or his second-choice candidate, and so on. This is typically a vote for an individual and not a party (although the party option is available for the Australian Senate and is used by more than 95 percent of electors). An electoral quota is established,4 which determines the minimum number of valid votes required for a seat in the assembly. The ballot count initially considers each candidate’s first-preference votes, and those who reach the quota are elected.
Almost President: The Men Who Lost the Race but Changed the Nation by Scott Farris