By Byron B. Brenden (auth.), Glen Wade (eds.)
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Additional resources for Acoustic Imaging: Cameras, Microscopes, Phased Arrays, and Holographic Systems
En ::0 m " "m ~r ::0 o -I 26 CHAPTER 2 principles as we understand them currently. His images were not of high quality. Not only did he operate without the use of a laser, but also he provided no spatial filtering to eliminate unwanted beam components in the reconstruction process. In another of Sokolov's early attempts to detect flaws with ultrasound, he used a bulk system strikingly similar in overall appearance to that of the present Bragg-diffraction systems . A diagram of Sokolov's system is shown in Fig.
However, in their typical operation the necessary focusing is accomplished either through the use of acoustic lenses or arrays of acoustic elements, and the image information is read out by means of piezoelectric transducers. In terms of sensitivity and freedom from certain spurious image elements (speckle and ringing), this latter category of systems is inherently superior to the category of systems using laser-beam readout. These points will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 4. A number of exceptional images have been obtained from systems in this category, notably from an ultrasonic camera operating at low frequencies, developed by Philip Green and colleagues 40 CHAPTER 2 at Stanford Research Institute , and from an acoustic microscope operating at high frequencies developed by Professor Quate at Stanford University .
1. The scheme was first proposed in 1929. Later Sokolov patented the system and published a paper concerning its operation . This system is remarkably like the modern liquid-surface systems described in detail in Chapter 6 and commented upon briefly later in the present chapter. However, two major differences exist. Modern systems have a second sound source referred to as a reference beam. They also use lasers to read out the image information. Lasers, of course, were not available to Sokolov, and his light source was not as coherent as he might have wished.
Acoustic Imaging: Cameras, Microscopes, Phased Arrays, and Holographic Systems by Byron B. Brenden (auth.), Glen Wade (eds.)